Top 10 Challenges

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Challenges Received

1.  Can machines and the people think together?
Description: Some operations can be well done by computing machines, while others by the human. For the tasks, e.g., image searching, we can borrow the power from the people in the form of social tagging to help the computers work better. Generally, can we expand the computers' capabilities by integrating the social force in a wider sense so that the computers can accomplish most of the jobs they are not good at before? How to design the social-technical system just like one computing machine? For the Turing machine, all the operations are undertaken by one single machine, how to describe in a formal way the new computing machine, and how intelligent it can be with the participation of the intelligent humans?
2.  Can smart furniture and building change its shape by programing?
Description: Furniture and buildings are usually designed as monolithic entities which can solve one problem at a time. Can we use different materials according to different needs to design the conveyor? Then they can organize to build furniture even houses just like building blocks toys.
3.  Can memory storage devices be embedded in the human brain?
Description: Because of the memory has many characteristics, such as selective, amnesia and finiteness, can we design a chip to store the memory in the future? So that people can be gifted with photographic memory and to implement knowledge, experience sharing, at the same time can also upload download.
4.  The other development direction of Objects and Cyber interconnection.
Description: There is scene that one girl is infected through the computer, when she is connecting to the Internet. What happened? Can computer virus influence people? Maybe biochemistry will get in touch with computer and internet. Which can bring good or bad effects, helping or endangering human health.
5.  Wearable Devices Developement and Security Challenges
Description: With the advancement of a variety of smart glasses, rings, watches and pendants, the key point to win in market competition is how to realize the user secure access and data protection. For one hand, against all risks of wearable device may be lost, stolen or borrowed, as well as the inappropriate disposal of old devices, which will lead to privacy data being stolen, how to resist the illegal access should be solved. For the other hand, with more and more user information transmission in real time from wearable devices to the clouds, cloud stores and processes a large number of user's private data, which leads to the attacks on the cloud server as well as leakage large numbers of sensitive data, such as user's health, lifestyle, action, etc. These data may be used beyond imagination, and cause serious consequences, such as personal identity theft, tracking, fraud and other criminal acts. In addition, not only wearable device pose a threat to the user's personal information, non-wearers may not be spared difficult, such as smart smart glasses could be used to steal others life privacy.
6.  Can special small smart world be built for every object?
Description: There are a large variety of objects in our living space, such as physical objects, cyber objects, social objects, thinking objects, and so on. Can we build a special small smart world for each of these objects? The small smart world will always follow the object and represent the relevant information and wisdom of it. When one of the small smart worlds meet others, they can communicate and change their content according to the scenario. In this way, all objects will become smart objects, and all small smart worlds will be integrated into a large smart world.
7.  Bridging the gap between the world and its computer model
Description: There is always a gap between the world and its description with a computer model. How to model the world (e.g. part of it, or a question of the world) is challenging.
8.  Smart Algorithms
Description: An advanced algorithm is the brain of a Smart World. Although many other challenges such as data storage, real-time responses are not easy to solve, algorithm is the soul of a Smart World.
9.  The achievement of space-time consistency and space-time registration between physical objects and smart entities
Description: Space and time are the most basic characteristics in the physical-smart world, which are inherent in any physical objects and endowed to smart entities. The consistent space-time data is important for the mapping between physical objects and smart entities. To build the smart world covering many smart entities, the space-time data is required to be accurate, comprehensive, and continuous. The space-time characteristics in physical and smart world are interactional. How to achieve the space-time consistency between a physical objects and a smart entity, how to perform the space-time registration among several cyber entities mapped from the same physical object in different smart system are challenging for building smart worlds.
10.  ubiquitous computing and security
Description: As homes get smarter and ubiquitous wireless sensor systems and computing gain traction how can these become truly ubiquitous if smartphone/portable computer security is not to be traded off and smart homes compromised by hackers.
11.  Hyper-intelligence which interconnects all human intelligence and ubiquitous and heterogeneous non-human intelligent things in future Internet of Intelligent Things (IoIT)
Description: We can envision that in the near future we will encounter ubiquitous (human and non-human) intelligence things highly interconnected across over the emerged worlds (real, virtual, social, etc.). What will happen? Are we safe? Are we comfortable? How can we survive and coexist harmoniously together in such a hyper-intelligence world to achieve individual needs as well as global harmonious symbiosis? These are challenging questions.
12.  Smart World needs more advanced infrastructure hardware
Description: The manufacturing technology of basic hardware, which as the foundation of the Smart World, will become very important. For example,Apple watch is the newest intelligent device, but its battery life is short. This problem makes the user uncomfortable. In the furture world, every person will become the node of Smart World, the mobile electronic devices must be in working condition at all times. So the related technology of the battery must be developing. Moreover, all the mobile devices need to have the ability to calculate. But now, the chips used in smart phone have an identical problem: temperature increases quckily. It increases the energy consumption as well as shortens the life of the chips. The solutions to these problems, are dependent on the relevant hardware technology.
13.  Smart world for companies or for people?
Description: IoT is now widespread in companies with the use of RFID for example and it is just beginning to be used at home. Will the smart world be used only by companies or will it be widespread?
14.  Will Smart worlds makes unemployment?
Description: Automatic driving, machine learning, robots, they will all replace humans getting to an increase of unemployment. Will the people working for smart worlds compensate this loss of emplyment or not?
15.  Debugging Smart Worlds
Description: Smart worlds are complex with interconnected heterogenous hardware and software components. In addition, human's internal worlds are starting to merge with the external worlds in the surroundings through advanced wearable sensing technologies. For example, a future app may manipulate brain waves to force or deceive humans into certain behaviors or to create certain feelings. How to ensure the safety and correctness of such cyber-human worlds as we outsource their control to algorithms? How to avoid degrading humans through usable interfaces to such complex worlds? These questions impose functional and usability requirements on any practical smart worlds deployment, which is an important research area deserving attentions within smart worlds community.
16.  How to evaluate the intelligence of smart world?
Description: What indicators should be used to evaluate smart world? Can we define the smart level of smart world concretely? Does the smart world has the maximum intelligence?
17.  Smart Software Infrastructure for Smart Worlds
Description: A smart world won't be possible without a smart software infrastructure. Obviously, the software infrastructure would facilitates both the communication among internet-of-things that use heterogeneous networking protocols and the interactions between human beings, internet-of-things, and traditional computing machines. We argue that much research is needed to make smart worlds a reality and as a key component of any smart world, the software infrastructure must be made smart. Research challenge one: enable adaptable and autonomy-oriented computing of individual internet-of-thing while ensuring high degree of security of the entire system. To ensure that a smart world is functionally useful, internet-of-things must be made adaptable and are allowed to make autonomic decisions. On the other hand, it is far easier to accomplish system security if all APIs and state changes are known a priori. How to strike a right balance between the functional requirement for adaptability and the nonfunctional security requirement under different scenarios is a big challenge. Research challenge two: automatic context discovery. Contextual information is essential for a system to provide customized services according to the needs of its users. While internet-of-things provide valuable data to help establish context, automatic discovery of the contextual information would require a combination of supervised learning, unsupervised learning, as well as active learning with user inputs.
18.  How will the cyber, physical, and social space collaborate in sensing and computing to make a complete picture about a particular target (e.g., event, community dynamics)?
Description: The cyber, physical, and social spaces have complementary sensing/computing capabilities and should collaborate to make a comprehensive understanding of our world. Challenges include collaborative sensing, human-machine systems, cross-space data mining, etc.
19.  Mind-on-Chip: can hardware evolve dynamically based on its perception?
Description: Human brains are constantly evolving based on perceptions and experiences to the external world and making informed judgements. While software algorithms exist to achieve the so-called "intelligence", such intelligence is still limited by the hardware capability. Can hardware dynamically evolve according to its perception and assist intelligent software to achieve faster and more accurate decisions? Can hardware evolve dynamically to make smart application more efficient and secure? Can hardware develop a mind which interacts with the software and assist each other.
20.  Closed loop eco-control system for smart artificial environment
Description: Existing intelligent automation systems are mostly reactive control and incapable of taking multiple complex feedback inputs to form a closed loop control system. Potentially, a closed loop eco-control system allows an entire artificial environment to be intelligently controlled in a sustainable manner. Such technology can potentially be applied to unmanned agriculture or even habitable space station, where the entire artificial eco-system can be cultured by the intelligent eco-control system.
21.  Rendezvous between two users without any prior infromation
Description: How do we know that we are SMART? Smartness depends on how we manage our daily activities and specially in critical time. For instance, what is best way to manage the communication in case of disaster when all the infrastructure is ruined. Disaster reflects the transient human behavior when prior agreement really doesn't work. Same idea can be portrayed for cognitive radio communication which can utilize the license spectrum in case of disaster. And the availability of radio spectrum is widely varied based on users activities. Hence same set of spectrum may not be available for the both parties but have have at least one common channel. In this scenario, how fast two users can establish the communication is a practical challenge.
22.  Can future smart phone only provide a dialog box?
Description: We today spend too much time on our smart phones, we getting used to light the screen, slide the pages and then select an App randomly, with no purpose. If the smart phone only have a dialog box, and you have to provide a target description when you want to use your phone, then, every thing will become more targeted and we will save a lot of time.
23.  Human behavior and smart worlds
Description: It has been demonstrated that technology can make our life better. For example, fitness trackers could potentially motivate us to exercise more. Other wearable devices could detect signs of stress and help us relax and be more productive. More sophisticated systems based on smart things and motion tracking sensors are under development that could monitor a worker's behavior and remind the person when a movement is dangerous. All the above systems and technologies have a common goal of improving our life by changing our behavior. However, changing human behavior is a tremendous challenge. People are very different, and a one-size-fit-all solution most probably won't work. This calls for the development of personalized smart systems. Such a smart system would monitor the progression of a person's behavior, automatically discover the context and environment the person is in, experiment with different methods that could potentially trigger positive changes under the particular context, and learn the method that works the best.
24.  How can the system detects malfunctions of smart hardware or software components and ensures that the overall system still functions properly when part of the system fails ?
Description: The smart world consists of millions and millions of smart hardware and software components working together. The overall system works well when each component functions properly, however, when some hardware or software components malfunction, it's critical to automatically detect those failed components, isolate those components, and ensure that the overall system works properly when some hardware or software components in the smart world fail. That is to say, how to ensure the functionality of the overall system when part of the system fails is a critical research challenge.
25.  Precise Localization Science and Technology
Description: The two fundamental measures for information classification and large data processing needed for smart world technologies are precise, simple and available time and location for events. Scientists and engineers have solved the time problem in the past five hundred years, beginning by pendulum clocks available for large buildings with a reasonable precision to synchronize events in a town several hundred years ago and today they have reached to digital inexpensive clock available to every person in their mobile phones with atomic clock precision. Localization technology is more complex and besides the absolute value of the location it needs a map to visualize the location in different contexts. Large scale precise localization began with GPS with tens of meters of accuracy in early 1990's for outdoor applications and using satellite pictures of the earth, such as Google maps, opened a horizon for a number of smart applications. However, GPS does not operate properly in indoor areas, where we need accuracy within meters. Besides we need layout of the individual floors in the building that to map the location for many popular applications and these layouts are not available universally. As a result, indoor localization science and engineering became a fundamental area of research for the past two decades and a number of new technologies such as Wi-Fi localization, UWB, localization using smart phone sensors have emerged for indoor applications. More recently, localization inside the human body that need centimeter or even millimeter accuracy for localization has emerged as an active area of research for micro-robots designed for health applications inside the human body, where there is no map available. Therefore, I believe precise localization science is one of the fundamental science and engineering challenges facing emergence of the smart applications for the future. Localization science and engineering is one of the most important emerging technologies affecting all aspects of smart world and it is evidenced by emergence of a number of companies in this domain in the past few years.
26.  Location-based SEE THROUGH Historic AR of Digital Culture Landscapes in Moving Vehicles
Description: When people are having city tour and sightseeing of some culture landscapes in vehicles (buses, sedans, trains, etc.), what they see are the current situations of these culture landscapes. For a smart touring is a smart city, a location-based SEE THROUGH Culture Landscape platform should be offered such that people can see what these landscapes looked like 50/100/500/1000/2000/... year's ago from vehicles' windows. It is a piece of multi-disciplinary research that need the cooperation of IT/CSE people and Culture Heritage people, in which IT/CSE people are in charge of the technical part and the Culture Heritage people are in charge of the mobile digital content part.
27.  How to process heterogeneous big data from smart things?
Description: Smart things such as smart phone and smart home with huge amount of heterogeneous data have been paving the way for the new era of Internet of Things with big data. Accordingly, efficient heterogeneous big data processing based on everything connected to Internet has become one of the biggest challenges for both academic researches and industrial applications.
28.  Can we develop software without bugs and vulnerability
Description: Cyber world requires large size of software, but software always contains bugs and vulnerability. Will we have methods to develop software without bugs and vulnerability?
29.  Symbiosis of human beings and smart machines in the smart world
Description: No one really expects the super AI will dominate the future of our human society, as the so-called Singularity claims and predicts that human-level AI will evolve beyond traditional intelligence then explode by 2045. It is important to have symbiosis or harmonious coexistence of human beings and smart machines in the smart world. It is a challenging issue to make smart machines under control of human being.
30.  A determined measure for smartness
Description: It is a fundamental problem to measure how smart it (smart object, smart machine, or smart world, etc.) is. It is a challenging issue to have a determined measure for it.
31.  Smart service economy
Description: The world nowadays is run and supported by smart services, which are deployed upon ubiquitous smart things. In fact, we are heading for the smart service society and economy. Services are heavy a little bit and are not energy efficient when running on mobile devices. Therefore, energy efficient techniques for composing services, and thus extending services to mobile internet, are a challenge.
32.  Can we well extract and interpret the individual and social intelligence across the well-connected smart worlds for the intelligent data consumption and individualized information utilization
Description: We have been continuously experiencing a fast change from all walks of our lives. The tremendous increase of data scale brings big challenges for developing applications to explore the large volumes of data and extract useful information or knowledge for future actions. It is essential to seamlessly model and analyze the scattered personal and social data from multi-sources across various smart systems, and analyze and interpret the various interactions and dynamical associations among people to build a well-connected smart world. Thus, it becomes big challenge to extract and utilize both the individual and social intelligence in the human-centric process of data enlargement and data-centric process of data refinement, to develop the comprehensive modeling and applications.
33.  Can we well control all the smart objects or the developed smart world will finally control our lives
Description: With the quick development of several existing computing paradigms, such as Ubiquitous Computing, Mobile Computing, and Social Computing, it is no doubt that we can achieve into a reality of the high developed combination of smart things in the near future. While all these changes are making our lives much easier and safer than ever before, we are becoming increasingly dependent on them, which makes us like sort of beings of the use of these smart things. Accordingly, in addition to some security & privacy issues, how to make the smart world better sever us, rather than making us addict in it, or how can the "intelligence" be evolved for both human-beings and smart things together, may become an important challenge.
34.  Can a relationship map be built when join a social group?
Description: It is hardly to find a 'suitable one' to discussion when you in a conference of real-world or join a chat room in cyberspace. Can a relationship map be built when we join in a social group both in real-world and cyberspace?
35.  Unified smart data analysis infrastructure in big data
Description: Big data is prevalent both in real world and cyberspace. However, big data owns large volume of data with rapid increasing velocity and big noise. The valuable data, which is called smart data, have direct or indirect correlations for real business. It is a big challenge to analyze and extract the required smart data for each business service accurately from large amounts of data. Can we build a unified smart data infrastructure that enable to integrate heterogeneous data together from the real world and the cyberspace for different fields or domains? With the necessary data preprocessing, the required temporal smart data should be extracted efficiently for each service in each time slide. The unified infrastructure should be sensitive and comprehensive enough for providing the valuable information timely for each burst event.
36.  Can machines have its own thought?
Description: Now most of the machines are in accordance with the regulated program and follow the orders of the human.If the machine can think like a man, in some work, the machine can learn by themselves to find the best solution to the problem,so human can save the tedious trying process.
37.  Improvement of Machine Anthropomorphic
Description: In the field of artificial intelligence, we always pursue to make the machine to achieve human behavior and thought process. Perhaps we can think it as a perspective likes all of human behavior and thought process can be divided into two phases: the study phase contains all active or passive learning, cognition, memory behavior, and the judgment phase covers Identification, selection,or the measure of correct or not. The study phase can be considered a process drawing and storing information from the outside world into their own stuff, and nowdays the reseaches of machine learning can simulate this process more successful. However, judgement phare is a relatively complex process that it not onlyhas to synthesize the acquired knowledge, but also needs to consider the measurement criterion for judgement or determination. So whether the machine can really accomplish a human's behavior or thought process decided by realizing the judgment phase.
38.  Convergence of machine and biological intelligence through neural interfaces
Description: As research continues, the line between humans and machines begins to blur. In fact, AI is extending to include biological intelligence. For instance, in collective intelligence or crowdsourcing, the machine asks humans to solve a problem, then collects and integrates their solutions. However, in these approaches, the connection between humans and machines is loosely coupled in the traditional human-computer interaction manner. How can we integrate AI with biological intelligence by tightly connecting machines and biological beings, for example, neural interfaces?
39.  Smart Museum
Description: There are a lot of history museum in the world, which are located in different cities. Which means that if we want to visit, we need to go to those city. Smart museum is opened in any city, and it provides the specific regional museum display to visitors. In particular, it is presented by the light of the 3D model. The dinosaur museums have left you a great impression if you have seen Jurassic world. Smart museums are such an experience to the viewers.
40.  Can smart machines self-motivated and value-driven?
Description: It is important that smart machines evolve by machine learning algorithms. It is more important for smart machines to be self-motivated and make value-based judgment and decision. Self-motivation and sense of value can be two essential attributes for smart machines.
41.  Self Evolving AI with Self destruct mode - Defining a threshold of destructive Intelligence.
Description: AI is taking the world by storm and the day is not far when everything will be intelligent enough to control itself and its surrounding. Two points to be kept in mind for future smart world. The AI should be taken to the next level of self evolution where every machine can itself evolve into something new and should also be able to create something new like humans created robots, so Robots should be able to create Ro-Robots. But such a super intelligence can be dangerous for human beings itself as predicted by Bill Gates, Stephen Hawkings and many other great minds. So the creaters of this super intelligence have to make a kill switch, a self destruct mode whenever it becomes a danger for the existence of humans and other intelligent machines. A threshold of intelligence should be defined and embedded regarding the destructive abilities of intelligent machines.
42.  Philosopher Machines
Description: Although AI is being developed at different levels but its going with a slow pace. I propose such machines whose only purpose is to think, create and modify intelligent algorithms. Creating such machines is a tough ask but it can speed up the AI research many folds. For example a Chess playing AI program can calculate millions of moves per second so if such a system is used to create and test AI algorithms it would be revolutionary.
43.  Dr. MathPhyEngr (A research oriented, understanding AI being)
Description: In order to create a smart world we have to let machines understand the mysteries of maths and physics not just calculate them. We have seen MATLAB and other softwares which are based on formulae present and they calculate the answers according to them. The time has come we teach the machines mathematics and physics and let them search and understand all the research material available in these fields. Then they will be able to create new areas and mind blowing discoveries and inventions in maths and physics. If achieved machines will create new formulae and it will change the world within no time.
44.  Brain to Brain Communication with Human Charging
Description: Imagine if you think something and you can send it to another person mind using your brain waves and nothing else. Furthermore the system should be able to utilize human body's electric charge to operate solving the energy problem. It will change the world of communication completely. Obviously it will have a lot of problems regarding security but every problem has a solution. First we have to make such systems which are able to carry a message from one's brain to another's and we can deal with security and other problems afterwards.
45.  Human Brain Analyzer to create super Intelligence
Description: What if we design a system that can analyze the thinking process and brain activity of human beings and stores it? Then it is used on hundreds of intelligent humans' brains and compare and analyze their intelligence. Doing permutations and comparisons of multiple moves it then defines and creares a super intelligence.
46.  Are we moving forward or backward when technology becomes smart?
Description: As the famous slogan - Connecting People - indicates, lots of development in novel technologies intensify the relationship between people without necessarily enhance technologies that are close to the nature of human beings. Recent paradigms, such as Cloud Computing that advances network infrastructure for data storage and resource sharing; the Internet of Things that prompts the intelligence and awareness over this new kind of network structure; and Social Network that provides alternatives for communication as well as tighten the connection among people; provide such examples. With the supports, people tend to make themselves available online, which often manifests their willingness of placing almost everything (e.g., data, private information) on the Web (or Hyper World). This leads to the increasing dependency on more and more complex computer networking paradigms and associated techniques, which may be reflected by recently-focused issues such as Trust/Dependable Computing paradigms. However, it is never possible to obtain systems, even human beings with relative good relationship, that are fully trustable or dependable. Thus this challenge discusses a scenario concerning the survivability of human beings, especially when our living world becomes no longer smart anymore. We do not intent to separate the human and technology, but attempt to understand the perfect co-existence among them instead. Giving a more specific scenario of the above-mentioned idea. Do we have to remind ourselves to take the medicine when we know that our smart devices (e.g., phone, watch, etc.) will remind us on time? Are we sure that the devices are always correct and available? What if it is not available? What if we are in emergency?
47.  The lack of non-intrusive, cheap, long-term sensing devices
Description: To achieve smart worlds, we should obtain a large amount of various information. Although the technology of sensing devices has been improved in recent years, it is hard for some devices to be used in practical use. For example, devices to sense user's blood pressure are still intrusive so that the users may feel uncomfortable. The devices to sense concentrations of carbon dioxide are very useful, but they are quite expensive. Some other sensors cannot support long-term use because of the battery power.
48.  Automatically gathering the personalized requirements
Description: Researchers are trying to provide services for users without interrupting their daily life. However, the requirements are often specified by the developers. Such pre-defined requirements may not reflect the actual requirements of a user. Users may give their personalized requirements manually. It is challenging to gather the personalized requirements automatically. The system needs to obtain the information not only the profile and status (e.g., activity) of a user but also the emotion and intention. The related technology has yet to be improved. It is also challenging to ensure users privacy when we are gathering their requirements automatically.
49.  The common knowledge base
Description: Some researchers focus on independent applications. But the integration of different applications is still meaningful. Furthermore, we may integrate applications into a whole smart world in the future. However, it is challenging to share the knowledge of different applications. Researchers of semantic web are trying to construct a global ontology for many years. However, global ontology has not been used widely. Does we need a common knowledge base? How to handle the different descriptions of same or similar knowledge in different applications?
50.  Connected Smart Things and Pervasive Communication Challenges
Description: The complete realization of smart worlds inevitably depends on highly interaction and integration of heterogeneous cyber-physical-social spaces. Specifically, heterogeneous existing wireless and wire accessing technologies (e.g., Bluetooth, ZigBee, WiFi, LiFi, 3G/4G networks, etc.) should be cooperative so that pervasive communication can penetrate in full dimensions of our world. But several significant challenges should be addressed for fully realizing such an envisioned picture such as i) the increased complexity with highly heterogeneous and large-scale architectures of co-existing networking technologies, ii) dynamic nature of connecting demands from massiveheterogeneous users of high-mobility or low-mobility (including people and machines), iii) requirements for high-fidelity information, iv) network resource constraints and fierce competitions, v) lack of highly centralized infrastructures.
51.  How to identify the cooperation (or selfishness) degree of smart social mobile objects?
Description: Due to the resource constrains in mobile devices or social benefits of their owners, smart mobile objects (e.g., users and their respective devices) might display different kinds of selfish behavior to some or all other mobile objects by providing data delivery services with different qualities. While the degree of cooperation of selfish mobile objects in most of existing networking protocols is identified based on their contact and mobility information, the social characteristics of the mobile objects have not been explored sufficiently. The potential solutions to this problem can be based on various social network analysis techniques, such as social similarity or social distance functions, using the objects' realistic social features and behaviors. This issue becomes even more challenging when the selfish mobile objects prevent revealing their actions and decisions to other objects which leads data delivery under uncertain behaviors.
52.  Can predictive data analytics be effective without a baseline?
Description: Prediction analysis is an important research topic in the emerging era of big data. Predicting the future job requirements can be useful in various aspects such as resource optimization, enhanced Quality of Service (QoS), performance energy optimization etc. However prediction is never being easy and existing predictive mechanisms do have limitations and higher degree of inaccuracies. Unreliable predictive results can result in dramatic failures in on-demand service provisioning environments such as Cloud datacentres. Most of the existing prediction algorithms in Cloud environments rely on the patterns extracted from the historical data as their predictive baseline. In practice, inaccurate or wrong prediction occurs, if the incoming or current streams of data deviate from these pre-assumed patterns generated by Machine Learning. To this end, an important research question is to what extent the newly arriving workloads (those excluded from the previously categorized patterns) affect the prediction analysis? In other words, how to effectively categorize the newly arriving workloads and how to correlate them with the existing patterns for an effective predictive analysis? In general, modelling incoming pattern driven by human behaviours is often complicated than that of machine generated patterns. A prediction model with the quality of close correlation between human behaviours (job submission patterns) and assumed machine modelled patterns for workload generation would be a sensational milestone in the domain of predictive data analytics.
53.  The integration of Biology and Computing
Description: The living things has many irreplaceable advantanges comparing to smart devices. Instead of building a system doing everything smartly, I think a more possible way is integrating a smart system into a living thing so as to get a enhanced "Cyborg". Based on the cyborg, living things can be more smarter, more powerful and more robost.
54.  Changing the Attitude of the Community and Addressing the Know-How
Description: I think the tough challenge in building smart world is instead of developing a system pushing users to use a certain system is very challenging task specially in developing countries. Most of the time people afraid to make changes to there life. So instead of adapting new things they choose to work with the system they already know even if they are not comfortable with it. In my opinion changing that attitude will be a tough challenge instead of building the smart world.
55.  How to cope with dynamic complexity for networking in the coming smart world
Description: In the smart world era, heterogeneous requirements are independently generated from cyber-physical spaces and the requirements themselves are frequently changing and evolving. In such situations, the volume of traffic among people and smart things for computing, communicating and sensing tremendously increases and its variation becomes huge and unpredictable. Nevertheless, networks to interconnect them must be controlled and managed stably and sustainably. Creating novel network architectures to cope with dynamic complexity for networking in the coming smart world is a big challenging issue.
56.  Smart transportation system and smart transit
Description: Most of people rely on public transportation system everyday. Every country in the world develop their Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) aggressively to control the traffic and reduce the probability of traffic congestion. But most of all simply consider the shortest path planning. Smart transportation system combines Geographic Information System (GIS) and Internet of Thing (IoT), through big data processing provides better user's transport information. Users can acquire better planning route in advance to shorten their traffic time. Besides, smart transit considers different characteristics of the transportation (bus, train, subway, etc.), with real-time data processing to aims at a more safety and less congestion route for users.
57.  Accountability for multi-tenant cloud services
Description: Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) a cloud service delivery model referring to applications that are delivered to users in form of services over the Internet. SaaS providers can make economies when cloud resources are shared among multiple users. This is due to the multi-tenancy property that enables hosting multiple users (also known as tenants) by a single service instance. Even so, the challenge of data privacy can be increased via reducing risk when using the cloud. In this context, there is still little focus on controls related to cloud accountability (data's integrity, security, and privacy as focus shifts of data protection). In fact, it consists in accepting to take responsibility for users' data protection and governance in light of explicit agreements between them. However, performing accountability of the multi-tenant services is complex and causes new problems. This is due to the antagonism of their objectives. That is, multi-tenancy ensures the services sharing for tenants equally regardless of specific privacy requirements for each one. While the accountability is a single-tenant concept that aims to ensure the service responsibility toward a single user by taking into account his requirements. We are treating the challenge of coupling tenant-aware cloud service with accountability so that the latter can support multi-tenancy architecture.
58.  Can people prolong life by storing their memories and thinking modes?
Description: To be immortal was the dream of human. Hundreds of examples show that seek for living forever by improving abilities physically is impossible. Nevertheless, if it's possible to prolong life in a digital way? In other words, can we restructure individuals by their memories and thinking modes? Two challenges are in our way to realize the dream. Firstly, it's quite apparent that reading and storing people's memories or thinking should be very difficult. Secondly, how to organize the data to make digital individuals behave like true human is of challenges.
59.  Human-to-autonomous-system interaction
Description: More objects become smarter every day. In the near future, many systems around us will become autonomous, e.g., smart thermostats, autonomous driving cars. Soon we will need to interact with many autonomous systems most of the time, e.g., a pedestrian may encounter many autonomous driving cars in an intersection. Unfortunately, human today has limited understanding of the logic/intention of autonomous systems. We need to extend human's capability to interact with autonomous systems better.
60.  Privacy protection in the Internet of Things
Description: The Internet of Things is playing a more and more important role all around the world. More and more Internet of Things applications have been applied to our everyday life. In some Internet of Things systems, such as smart home, eHealth system, people's personal information is being collected with sensors, uploaded to internet, stored in the cloud, and analyzed by computers. This is beneficial for people's life in the aspect that the Internet of Things system can greatly improve people's life quality. However, the privacy protection is a big challenge in this kind of system. Privacy protection needs to be very solid in every section of the system: data collection section, data transmission section, data storage section and data process section. Failure to maintain a high level of privacy protection may lead to the failure of the whole Internet of Things System.
61.  Anonymity to users of Smart world
Description: Anonymity is proven to be less expensive in terms of resources used and complexity than applying other security techniques to protect privacy of users. The smart world closely interacts with users and handles sensitive data of the user. Hence it is necessary to provide anonymity to users of smart world while not affecting operations of smart world devices. The challenge is to provide and integrate anonymity into smart world devices to the overall architecture of the smart world.
62.  Negotiation of interests of different smart worlds and smart world devices
Description: Smart world can be classified into static i.e. in a stationary environment and dynamic i.e. moving with the user. It is required for two different smart worlds and their devices to work together to resolve conflict of interests and provide the best interest/goals of the user in terms of privacy, energy usage, real world environment, safety etc. Hence providing frameworks for negotiation of interests of different smart worlds is a challenge.
63.  Can we lessen human damage to natural environment and bio-diversity in the smart worlds?
Description: Development of human society and expansion of human territory bring huge impact on natural environment and bio-diversity, in many cases destructive and irreversibly. In the smart worlds, where human will be even more powerful, will the smart worlds assist human being generating a wise common view to protect the nature, or speed up the taking away? How to increase the possibility of the former?
64.  How can a person survive the smart world without chip embedded to adapt to the enormous information?
Description: Many experts believe it's a way must be past to embedded chips to enhance human intelligence and capability, but for those not willing or able to do so, will they just get knocked out and become a lower level being, or what is the mechanism to maintain human being's dignity and position without being a semi-robot?
65.  Powering the smart world with plant-life-mimicking intelligent applications
Description: What if everything we build and develop in the smart world mimic the plant life in general? Can we think of an entity in the smart world as an intersection between human intelligence (in the existing system) and plant life? Is it possible to have a smart home that has a plant characteristic? Why the world is not as enough smart as plants (they are always inline with the ecology, but we are not.) Most of the exiting technologies we develop mimic our behaviors (some time inherits implicitly.) In the future, if we develop and integrate plant characteristics at its core and all the legacy technology we have at our hand, there will be a better smart world that grants the evolution of human kind in better directions. In general, powering the world with plant-life mimicking intelligent applications can omit various hidden functionalities.
66.  How can a robot recognize human being and condition then be protective?
Description: In 2015 July, Financial Times reported a robot killed a man at Volkswagen plant in Germany. How can we avoid this in the smart worlds? Actually many people got killed by machines, if a man work with both intelligent and non-intelligent machines, how can the intelligent machine or robot recognize the man and the condition and protect him?
67.  How to educate AI?
Description: Recent AI is based on emulating a human brain, and taking a step closer to the realization. However, if it is realized by that method, AI will be similar to human being, not only good but also bad meaning. Therefore, I suggest a special education for AI. AI will be similar to human being but not same as it, so the education should be necessary to specialized for AI.
68.  Can smart-charge change our life?--New challenges and opportunities in smart world
Description: Nowadays, almost all the smart devices get power by cable, e.g., smart phone and laptop, etc., which causes a big problem in some scenarios. For example, when we are travelling, it is hard to make sure our smart devices are workable during the whole trip. Thus, we believe smart-charge will be a worth studying and novel concept which the smart devices can get and share power through wireless communications. With the help of the developing wireless charging technology, it will be realizable that we can schedule the device power in some emergent cases. Meanwhile, with smart-charge, users can charge their smart devices wirelessly and more efficiently. Furthermore, the power can be easily shared between different smart devices. For example, when a smart device with excess power, it can be an energy provider that the device can share its power to others which have short battery power. The most important meaning of this challenge is that no matter whenever and wherever we go, we will never worry about the battery residual of our smart-devices.
69.  Learning Revolution for Smart World: Storage and Reproduction of Memory and Thinking Mode
Description: Information explosion resulted from the development of human society has made original study method not adapt to the pace of science. Now people acquire knowledge by their teachers, books, etc. Due to limitations of one person's thinking, it is increasingly difficult for one person to reach the frontier of knowledge. At the same time, science will not stand still. Lots of significant knowledge can only be mastered by few people from different fields. These great people's memory and thinking mode are great wealth of human society. By storing and reproducing these memory and thinking mode can innovate the ways humans acquire knowledge. A learning revolution is brewing. Smart World will remember everything of human being and record every fragment of human civilization. Meanwhile, Humans will be able to access great people's memory and thinking mode from Smart World memory, then referring to these make more contributions to the World. For instance, while you are studying some theories about Astrophysics, you may be able to read the relevant memory of Mr. Stephen Hawking or Mr. Saul Perlmutter. This will greatly improve the efficiency of learning or research and make learning is not only the behavior of human individuals, but is becoming the behavior of human civilization. Memory and thinking may be related to people's privacy. Therefore, the challenge here means how to store and reproduce people's memory and thinking mode reasonably.
70.  Can smart world handle multiple personas?
Description: In smart words, each user may also play different roles which is similar to current normal physical world. The question is how to seamlessly manage and provide such diverse persona-centric environments to users in real-time. There may exist various conflicts and requirements related to different personas. It would raise several interesting challenges including identity management, privacy management and security & protection.
71.  Can we design a robot cop to guide the traffic?
Description: During the rush hour, polices usually need to stand on the intersection of the streets to guide the traffic. It is tedious and takes certain risk especially in bad weather condition such as snowing, raining, hot sunshine, and darkness. Although robot is popular nowadays, it still hard to see a robot cop which could detect the traffic volume based on which itcan perform actions including switching the traffic light, gesture, whistlingand so on. An option is that the robot cop can be controlled by the real human police who may stand on the road side or sit in a control center to avoid the possible danger. The robot must be able to standup, move to its original positionby itself and keep on its task in case it was hit by the car and fell down. Some other features may include, solar powered, taking picture or video to those cars with moving violation etc.

Copyright © The 2015 Smart World Congress Organizing Committee